Hepatocellular adenoma risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zahir Ali Shaikh, MD[2]


The most important risk factor for the development of hepatocellular adenoma is the use of oral contraceptive medications. Other risk factors include glycogen storage diseases, familial adenomatous polyposis, Klinefelter's syndrome, metabolic syndrome, obesity, long term use of anabolic androgenic steroids, vascular disorders such as portal vein agenesis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

Risk Factors

Risk Factors for Malignant Transformation

Risk factors for the malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenoma to hepatocellular carcinoma include:[6]

  • Gender (men)
  • Size (> 8 cm)
  • Sub-type (beta-catenin-activated hepatocellular adenoma)


  1. L. Rosenberg (1991). "The risk of liver neoplasia in relation to combined oral contraceptive use". Contraception. 43 (6): 643–652. PMID 1651205. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Barthelmes L, Tait IS (2005). "Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis". HPB (Oxford). 7 (3): 186–96. doi:10.1080/13651820510028954. PMC 2023950. PMID 18333188.
  3. U. Beuers, W. O. Richter, M. M. Ritter, B. Wiebecke & P. Schwandt (1991). "Klinefelter's syndrome and liver adenoma". Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 13 (2): 214–216. PMID 1851773. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. N. S. Alshak, J. Cocjin, L. Podesta, R. van de Velde, L. Makowka, P. Rosenthal & S. A. Geller (1994). "Hepatocellular adenoma in glycogen storage disease type IV". Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. 118 (1): 88–91. PMID 8285839. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. S. Bala, P. H. Wunsch & W. G. Ballhausen (1997). "Childhood hepatocellular adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis: mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli gene and p53". Gastroenterology. 112 (3): 919–922. PMID 9041254. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Aamann L, Schultz N, Fallentin E, Hamilton-Dutoit S, Vogel I, Grønbæk H (2015). "[Hepatocellular adenoma - new classification and recommendations]". Ugeskr Laeger. 177 (12). PMID 25786843.

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