Hepatocellular adenoma epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zahir Ali Shaikh, MD[2]


Hepatocellular adenoma is more common in women in Western countries where they are exposed to higher doses of oral contraceptives. The estimated incidence is 3 per 100,000 individuals/year and is 3 to 4 per 100,000 individuals with long term history of oral contraceptive use. It is more common in women of childbearing age who take oral contraceptives and can rarely occur in men who take long term anabolic androgenic steroids.

Epidemiology and Demographics



  • Prevalence of hepatocellular adenoma is difficult to asses because of the large proportion of adenomas not presenting with conventional symptoms.
  • The prevalence of hepatocellular adenoma was increased in the 1970s following the introduction of oral contraception in Western countries.[4]




  1. Barthelmes L, Tait IS (2005). "Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis". HPB (Oxford). 7 (3): 186–96. doi:10.1080/13651820510028954. PMC 2023950. PMID 18333188.
  2. Nault, Jean-Charles; Couchy, Gabrielle; Balabaud, Charles; Morcrette, Guillaume; Caruso, Stefano; Blanc, Jean-Frederic; Bacq, Yannick; Calderaro, Julien; Paradis, Valérie; Ramos, Jeanne; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Gnemmi, Viviane; Sturm, Nathalie; Guettier, Catherine; Fabre, Monique; Savier, Eric; Chiche, Laurence; Labrune, Philippe; Selves, Janick; Wendum, Dominique; Pilati, Camilla; Laurent, Alexis; De Muret, Anne; Le Bail, Brigitte; Rebouissou, Sandra; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Letouzé, Eric; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Laurent, Christophe; Saric, Jean; Frulio, Nora; Castain, Claire; Dujardin, Fanny; Benchellal, Zin; Bourlier, Pascal; Azoulay, Daniel; Luciani, Alain; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Fabre, Jean-Michel; Vilgrain, Valerie; Belghiti, Jacques; Bancel, Brigitte; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Letoublon, Christophe; Vaillant, Jean Christophe; Prévôt, Sophie; Castaing, Denis; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Peron, Jean Marie; Quaglia, Alberto; Paye, François; Terraciano, Luigi; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Saint Paul, Marie Christine; Terris, Benoit (2017). "Molecular Classification of Hepatocellular Adenoma Associates With Risk Factors, Bleeding, and Malignant Transformation". Gastroenterology. 152 (4): 880–894.e6. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2016.11.042. ISSN 0016-5085.
  3. J. B. Rooks, H. W. Ory, K. G. Ishak, L. T. Strauss, J. R. Greenspan, A. P. Hill & C. W. Jr Tyler (1979). "Epidemiology of hepatocellular adenoma. The role of oral contraceptive use". JAMA. 242 (7): 644–648. PMID 221698. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Védie, Anne-Laure; Sutter, Olivier; Ziol, Marianne; Nault, Jean-Charles (2018). "Molecular classification of hepatocellular adenomas: impact on clinical practice". Hepatic Oncology. 5 (1): HEP04. doi:10.2217/hep-2017-0023. ISSN 2045-0923.
  5. L. A. Heinemann, A. Weimann, G. Gerken, C. Thiel, M. Schlaud & T. DoMinh (1998). "Modern oral contraceptive use and benign liver tumors: the German Benign Liver Tumor Case-Control Study". The European journal of contraception & reproductive health care : the official journal of the European Society of Contraception. 3 (4): 194–200. PMID 10036602. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Nault, Jean-Charles; Paradis, Valérie; Cherqui, Daniel; Vilgrain, Valérie; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica (2017). "Molecular classification of hepatocellular adenoma in clinical practice". Journal of Hepatology. 67 (5): 1074–1083. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2017.07.009. ISSN 0168-8278.
  7. G. B. Coombes, J. Reiser, F. J. Paradinas & I. Burn (1978). "An androgen-associated hepatic adenoma in a trans-sexual". The British journal of surgery. 65 (12): 869–870. PMID 737424. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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