Teratoma classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Monalisa Dmello, M.B,B.S., M.D. [2]


  • The World Health Organization has classified CNS GCTs into germinomas and the following nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) groups:[1]
  • Choriocarcinoma.
  • Embryonal carcinoma.
  • Mixed germ cell tumor.
  • Teratoma.
  • Immature.
  • Mature.
  • Teratoma with malignant transformation.
  • Yolk sac tumor.
  • Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors classification
  • 1. GCTs arise from primordial germ cells, which migrate during embryogenesis from the yolk sac through the mesentery to the gonads.[2][3] Childhood extracranial GCTs can be divided into the following two types:
  • Gonadal.
  • Extragonadal.
  • 2. Most childhood extragonadal GCTs arise in midline sites (i.e., sacrococcygeal, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal); the midline location may represent aberrant embryonic migration of the primordial germ cells.Childhood extracranial GCTs are broadly classified as the following:
  • Mature teratomas.
  • Immature teratomas.
  • Malignant GCTs.
  • 3. GCTs comprise a variety of histologic diagnoses and can also be divided into the following histologic types:
  • Germinoma.
  • Germinoma.
  • Dysgerminoma (ovary).
  • Seminoma (testis).
  • Nongerminoma.
  • Teratoma (mature and immature).
  • Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor).
  • Choriocarcinoma.
  • Embryonal carcinoma.
  • Gonadoblastoma.
  • Mixed GCT
  • 4. Pediatric GCT Biology
  • The following biologically distinct subtypes of GCTs are found in children and adolescents:
  • Testicular GCTs.
  • Ovarian GCTs.
  • Extragonadal extracranial GCTs.


  1. Matsutani M, Sano K, Takakura K, Fujimaki T, Nakamura O, Funata N; et al. (1997). "Primary intracranial germ cell tumors: a clinical analysis of 153 histologically verified cases". J Neurosurg. 86 (3): 446–55. doi:10.3171/jns.1997.86.3.0446. PMID 9046301.
  2. Dehner LP (1983). "Gonadal and extragonadal germ cell neoplasia of childhood". Hum Pathol. 14 (6): 493–511. PMID 6343221.
  3. McIntyre A, Gilbert D, Goddard N, Looijenga L, Shipley J (2008). "Genes, chromosomes and the development of testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 47 (7): 547–57. doi:10.1002/gcc.20562. PMID 18381640.