Difference between revisions of "Subependymoma"

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(MRI)
(History and Symptoms)
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==Epidemiology and Demographics==
 
==Epidemiology and Demographics==
 
===Prevalence===
 
===Prevalence===
*Subependymoma constitutes approximately 1% of all intracranial tumors.<ref name="pmid23382616">{{cite journal| author=Saad AF, Bidiwala SB, Layton KF, Snipes GJ, Opatowsky MJ| title=Fourth ventricular subependymoma presenting as worsening headache. | journal=Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) | year= 2013 | volume= 26 | issue= 1 | pages= 52-4 | pmid=23382616 | doi= | pmc=PMC3523772 | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23382616  }} </ref>
+
*Subependymoma constitutes approximately 1% of all [[intracranial tumor]]<nowiki/>s.<ref name="pmid23382616">{{cite journal| author=Saad AF, Bidiwala SB, Layton KF, Snipes GJ, Opatowsky MJ| title=Fourth ventricular subependymoma presenting as worsening headache. | journal=Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) | year= 2013 | volume= 26 | issue= 1 | pages= 52-4 | pmid=23382616 | doi= | pmc=PMC3523772 | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23382616  }} </ref>
  
 
===Age===
 
===Age===

Revision as of 20:42, 9 July 2019

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mohamadmostafa Jahansouz M.D.[2]Sujit Routray, M.D. [3]

Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis

Gross Pathology

Microscopic Pathology

  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, subependymoma is characterized by microcystic spaces and bland appearing cells without appreciable nuclear atypia or mitoses. The nuclei tend to form clusters. No high grade features (mitoses, Ki-67 / MIBI index > 1.5%, necrosis) are present. Loose pseudorosettes are observed.[3]

Immunohistochemistry

  • Subependymoma is demonstrated by positivity to tumor marker such as GFAP.[3]
  • Also mixed populations of cells may be variably positive for:[4]

Differentiating Subependymoma from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

Age

  • Subependymoma is a rare disease that tends to affect middle-aged adults and the elderly population (typically 5th to 6th decades).[6]

Gender

  • Males are more commonly affected with subependymoma than females. The male to female ratio is approximately 2.3 to 1.[6]

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Natural History

Complications

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of subependymoma is excellent with complete excision of the tumor.[1][8]

History and Symptoms

History

  • When evaluating a patient for subependymoma, you should take a detailed history of the presenting symptom (onset, duration, and progression), other associated symptoms, and a thorough family and past medical history review.

Symptoms

  • Typically patients of subependymoma are asymptomatic and small lesions are discovered incidentally.
  • Symptoms of subependymoma include:[9]

CT

  • Head CT scan is helpful in the diagnosis of subependymoma. On CT scan, subependymoma is characterized by:[10]
  • Iso- and hypodense intraventricular mass
  • Positive mass effect
  • No enhancement
  • If large, it may have cystic or even calcific components
  • No vasogenic edema

MRI

  • Brain MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of subependymoma. On MRI, subependymoma is characterized by:
MRI component Findings

T1 weighted image

  • Iso - hypointense compared to white matter
  • Homogeneous but may be heterogeneous in larger lesions

T2 weighted image

  • Hyperintense compared to adjacent white and grey matter
  • Heterogeneity may be seen in larger lesions, with susceptibility related signal drop out due to calcifications
  • No adjacent parenchymal edema (as no brain invasion is present)

T1 weighted image with contrast

  • Little or no enhancement

Biopsy

  • Biopsy of the subependymoma tumor, taken through a needle during a simple surgical procedure, helps to confirm the diagnosis.[11]

Treatment

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Saad AF, Bidiwala SB, Layton KF, Snipes GJ, Opatowsky MJ (2013). "Fourth ventricular subependymoma presenting as worsening headache". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 26 (1): 52–4. PMC 3523772. PMID 23382616.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Jain A, Amin AG, Jain P, Burger P, Jallo GI, Lim M; et al. (2012). "Subependymoma: clinical features and surgical outcomes". Neurol Res. 34 (7): 677–84. doi:10.1179/1743132812Y.0000000064. PMC 4618470. PMID 22747714.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Pathology of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  4. D'Amico RS, Praver M, Zanazzi GJ, Englander ZK, Sims JS, Samanamud JL; et al. (2017). "Subependymomas Are Low-Grade Heterogeneous Glial Neoplasms Defined by Subventricular Zone Lineage Markers". World Neurosurg. 107: 451–463. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2017.08.009. PMID 28804038.
  5. Intraventricular neoplasms and lesions. Dr Henry Knipe and Dr Vinod G Maller et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/intraventricular-neoplasms-and-lesions. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  6. 6.0 6.1 Epidemiology of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  7. 7.0 7.1 Clinical presentation of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  8. Prayson RA, Suh JH (1999). "Subependymomas: clinicopathologic study of 14 tumors, including comparative MIB-1 immunohistochemical analysis with other ependymal neoplasms". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 123 (4): 306–9. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(1999)123<0306:S>2.0.CO;2. PMID 10320142.
  9. KE, Changshu. "Subependymoma: a case report and the review of literatures". doi:10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2011.01.021.
  10. Radiographic features of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  11. Diagnosis of subependymoma. Wikipedia 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subependymoma. Accessed on January 8, 2016

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