Ovarian germ cell tumor CT

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Monalisa Dmello, M.B,B.S., M.D. [2] Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.[3]

Overview

It is difficult to distinguish ovarian germ cell tumors on CT alone, however, pelvic/abdominal CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis. Sensitive findings on CT scan for the diagnosis of mature teratoma include Fat attenuation, presence or absence of calcification in the cyst wall, palm-tree like protrusion, and fat-fluid levels. Presence of cauliflower appearance with irregular borders may warrant the necessity to search for malignant transformation of these tumors. CT scan findings characteristics of immature teratoma include A large, irregular solid mass, presence of coarse calcification, small foci of fat, and Hemorrhage. CT findings associated with other ovarian germ cell tumors are not specific, but may be helpful.

CT

Mature teratoma

CT scan is a sensitive method to diagnose mature teratoma. Findings on CT scan suggestive of/diagnostic of mature teratoma include:[1]

Immature teratoma

CT scan findings of immature teratoma are characteristics and include:[3]

Dysgerminoma

CT scan findings of dysgerminoma include:

Yolk sac tumor

CT scan findings of yolk sac tumor include:

  • The bright dot sign (enhancing foci in the wall or solid component) is the common finding, although it is not the pathognomonic finding for the yolk sac tumor.[4]
  • Capsular tear is another common finding which is not the pathognomonic finding for the yolk sac tumor.

References

  1. Outwater EK, Siegelman ES, Hunt JL (2001). "Ovarian teratomas: tumor types and imaging characteristics". Radiographics. 21 (2): 475–90. doi:10.1148/radiographics.21.2.g01mr09475. PMID 11259710.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Saba, Luca; Guerriero, Stefano; Sulcis, Rosa; Virgilio, Bruna; Melis, GianBenedetto; Mallarini, Giorgio (2009). "Mature and immature ovarian teratomas: CT, US and MR imaging characteristics". European Journal of Radiology. 72 (3): 454–463. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.07.044. ISSN 0720-048X.
  3. Outwater, Eric K.; Siegelman, Evan S.; Hunt, Jennifer L. (2001). "Ovarian Teratomas: Tumor Types and Imaging Characteristics". RadioGraphics. 21 (2): 475–490. doi:10.1148/radiographics.21.2.g01mr09475. ISSN 0271-5333.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Shaaban, Akram M.; Rezvani, Maryam; Elsayes, Khaled M.; Baskin, Henry; Mourad, Amr; Foster, Bryan R.; Jarboe, Elke A.; Menias, Christine O. (2014). "Ovarian Malignant Germ Cell Tumors: Cellular Classification and Clinical and Imaging Features". RadioGraphics. 34 (3): 777–801. doi:10.1148/rg.343130067. ISSN 0271-5333.

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