Ovarian germ cell tumor CT
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It is difficult to distinguish ovarian germ cell tumors on CT alone, however, pelvic/abdominal CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis. Sensitive findings on CT scan for the diagnosis of mature teratoma include Fat attenuation, presence or absence of calcification in the cyst wall, palm-tree like protrusion, and fat-fluid levels. Presence of cauliflower appearance with irregular borders may warrant the necessity to search for malignant transformation of these tumors. CT scan findings characteristics of immature teratoma include A large, irregular solid mass, presence of coarse calcification, small foci of fat, and Hemorrhage. CT findings associated with other ovarian germ cell tumors are not specific, but may be helpful.
- Fat attenuation
- Presence or absence of calcification in the cyst wall
- Gravity dependent layering
- Palm-tree like protrusion
- Fat-fluid levels
- Whenever cauliflower appearance with irregular borders are observed, malignant transformation should be suspected.
- A large, irregular solid mass
- Presence of coarse calcification
- Small foci of fat
- Hemorrhage may also be present.
- Lobulated pattern in the solid portion.
- Areas of septa which are enhnacing
- Areas of hemorrhage and necrosis which appear cystic
- Speckled pattern of calcification
Yolk sac tumor
- The bright dot sign (enhancing foci in the wall or solid component) is the common finding, although it is not the pathognomonic finding for the yolk sac tumor.
- Capsular tear is another common finding which is not the pathognomonic finding for the yolk sac tumor.
- Outwater EK, Siegelman ES, Hunt JL (2001). "Ovarian teratomas: tumor types and imaging characteristics". Radiographics. 21 (2): 475–90. doi:10.1148/radiographics.21.2.g01mr09475. PMID 11259710.
- Saba, Luca; Guerriero, Stefano; Sulcis, Rosa; Virgilio, Bruna; Melis, GianBenedetto; Mallarini, Giorgio (2009). "Mature and immature ovarian teratomas: CT, US and MR imaging characteristics". European Journal of Radiology. 72 (3): 454–463. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.07.044. ISSN 0720-048X.
- Outwater, Eric K.; Siegelman, Evan S.; Hunt, Jennifer L. (2001). "Ovarian Teratomas: Tumor Types and Imaging Characteristics". RadioGraphics. 21 (2): 475–490. doi:10.1148/radiographics.21.2.g01mr09475. ISSN 0271-5333.
- Shaaban, Akram M.; Rezvani, Maryam; Elsayes, Khaled M.; Baskin, Henry; Mourad, Amr; Foster, Bryan R.; Jarboe, Elke A.; Menias, Christine O. (2014). "Ovarian Malignant Germ Cell Tumors: Cellular Classification and Clinical and Imaging Features". RadioGraphics. 34 (3): 777–801. doi:10.1148/rg.343130067. ISSN 0271-5333.