Myxomatous degeneration

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List of terms related to Myxomatous degeneration

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mahshid Mir, M.D. [2]

Overivew

Myxomatous degeneration refers to a pathological weakening of connective tissue. The term is most often used in the context of mitral valve prolapse, which is known more technically as "myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve." [1] It can also be used in refernce to degeneration of the aortic valve.

Pathophysiology

The degeneration occurs in conjunction with an accumulation of dermatan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan, within the connective tissue matrix of the valve. The exact mechanism is unknown.

In many cases, the degeneration is limited to the mitral valve and follows a benign course. When associated with systemic diseases, like Marfan syndrome, the degeneration is more extensive and involves other heart valves. The valves can become sufficiently distorted to cause insufficiency and regurgitation.

Historical Perspective

  • [Disease name] was first discovered by [scientist name], a [nationality + occupation], in [year] during/following [event].
  • In [year], [gene] mutations were first identified in the pathogenesis of [disease name].
  • In [year], the first [discovery] was developed by [scientist] to treat/diagnose [disease name].

Classification

  • [Disease name] may be classified according to [classification method] into [number] subtypes/groups:
  • [group1]
  • [group2]
  • [group3]
  • Other variants of [disease name] include [disease subtype 1], [disease subtype 2], and [disease subtype 3].

Pathophysiology

  • The pathogenesis of [disease name] is characterized by [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3].
  • The [gene name] gene/Mutation in [gene name] has been associated with the development of [disease name], involving the [molecular pathway] pathway.
  • On gross pathology, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].
  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].

Clinical Features

Differentiating [disease name] from other Diseases

  • [Disease name] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 1], [clinical feature 2], and [clinical feature 3], such as:
  • [Differential dx1]
  • [Differential dx2]
  • [Differential dx3]

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • The prevalence of [disease name] is approximately [number or range] per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
  • In [year], the incidence of [disease name] was estimated to be [number or range] cases per 100,000 individuals in [location].

Age

  • Patients of all age groups may develop [disease name].
  • [Disease name] is more commonly observed among patients aged [age range] years old.
  • [Disease name] is more commonly observed among [elderly patients/young patients/children].

Gender

  • [Disease name] affects men and women equally.
  • [Gender 1] are more commonly affected with [disease name] than [gender 2].
  • The [gender 1] to [Gender 2] ratio is approximately [number > 1] to 1.

Race

  • There is no racial predilection for [disease name].
  • [Disease name] usually affects individuals of the [race 1] race.
  • [Race 2] individuals are less likely to develop [disease name].

Risk Factors

  • Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] are [risk factor 1], [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

  • The majority of patients with [disease name] remain asymptomatic for [duration/years].
  • Early clinical features include [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
  • If left untreated, [#%] of patients with [disease name] may progress to develop [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
  • Common complications of [disease name] include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
  • Prognosis is generally [excellent/good/poor], and the [1/5/10­year mortality/survival rate] of patients with [disease name] is approximately [#%].

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met:
  • [criterion 1]
  • [criterion 2]
  • [criterion 3]
  • [criterion 4]

Symptoms

  • [Disease name] is usually asymptomatic.
  • Symptoms of [disease name] may include the following:
  • [symptom 1]
  • [symptom 2]
  • [symptom 3]
  • [symptom 4]
  • [symptom 5]
  • [symptom 6]

Physical Examination

  • Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance].
  • Physical examination may be remarkable for:
  • [finding 1]
  • [finding 2]
  • [finding 3]
  • [finding 4]
  • [finding 5]
  • [finding 6]

Laboratory Findings

  • There are no specific laboratory findings associated with [disease name].
  • A [positive/negative] [test name] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • An [elevated/reduced] concentration of [serum/blood/urinary/CSF/other] [lab test] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • Other laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of [disease name] include [abnormal test 1], [abnormal test 2], and [abnormal test 3].

Imaging Findings

  • There are no [imaging study] findings associated with [disease name].
  • [Imaging study 1] is the imaging modality of choice for [disease name].
  • On [imaging study 1], [disease name] is characterized by [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
  • [Imaging study 2] may demonstrate [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • [Disease name] may also be diagnosed using [diagnostic study name].
  • Findings on [diagnostic study name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Treatment

Medical Therapy

  • There is no treatment for [disease name]; the mainstay of therapy is supportive care.
  • The mainstay of therapy for [disease name] is [medical therapy 1] and [medical therapy 2].
  • [Medical therapy 1] acts by [mechanism of action 1].
  • Response to [medical therapy 1] can be monitored with [test/physical finding/imaging] every [frequency/duration].

Surgery

  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] in conjunction with [chemotherapy/radiation] is the most common approach to the treatment of [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] can only be performed for patients with [disease stage] [disease name].

Prevention

  • There are no primary preventive measures available for [disease name].
  • Effective measures for the primary prevention of [disease name] include [measure1], [measure2], and [measure3].
  • Once diagnosed and successfully treated, patients with [disease name] are followed-up every [duration]. Follow-up testing includes [test 1], [test 2], and [test 3].

References

  1. Cotran RS, Kumar V, Fausto N, Nelso F, Robbins SL, Abbas AK. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 7th ed. Elsevier Saunders. St. Louis, Mo 2005 ISBN 0-7216-0187-1


Cost Effectiveness of Myxomatous degeneration

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Myxomatous degeneration | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Myxomatous degeneration at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Myxomatous degenerationClinical Trials on Myxomatous degeneration at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Myxomatous degeneration | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Myxomatous degenerationNICE Guidance on Myxomatous degenerationNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Myxomatous degenerationCDC on Myxomatous degeneration


| group7 = Textbook Information on Myxomatous degeneration | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Myxomatous degeneration


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Myxomatous degeneration | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Myxomatous degenerationAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Myxomatous degenerationAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Myxomatous degenerationAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Myxomatous degenerationAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Myxomatous degenerationAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Myxomatous degenerationAND (pregnancy)}} Myxomatous degeneration in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Myxomatous degeneration


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Myxomatous degeneration | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Myxomatous degenerationAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Myxomatous degenerationAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Myxomatous degeneration


| group10 = Newstories on Myxomatous degeneration | list10 = Myxomatous degeneration in the newsBe alerted to news on Myxomatous degenerationNews trends on Myxomatous degeneration


| group11 = Commentary on Myxomatous degeneration | list11 = Blogs on Myxomatous degeneration

| group12 = Patient Resources on Myxomatous degeneration | list12 = Patient resources on Myxomatous degenerationDiscussion groups on Myxomatous degenerationPatient Handouts on Myxomatous degenerationDirections to Hospitals Treating Myxomatous degenerationRisk calculators and risk factors for Myxomatous degeneration


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Myxomatous degeneration | list13 = Symptoms of Myxomatous degenerationCauses & Risk Factors for Myxomatous degenerationDiagnostic studies for Myxomatous degenerationTreatment of Myxomatous degeneration

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Myxomatous degeneration | list14 = CME Programs on Myxomatous degeneration

| group15 = International Resources on Myxomatous degeneration | list15 = Myxomatous degeneration en EspanolMyxomatous degeneration en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Myxomatous degeneration | list16 = Myxomatous degeneration in the MarketplacePatents on Myxomatous degeneration

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Myxomatous degeneration | list17 = List of terms related to Myxomatous degeneration


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