Germ cell tumor risk factors

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Risk Factors

Germ cell tumor Risk factors
  • RF1
  • RF2
  • RF3
  • RF1
  • RF2 
  • Rf3
  • RF4
  • Rf5
  • Rf6
Embryonal carcinoma
  • RF1
  • RF1
  • RF1
Embryonal carcinoma
  • RF1

Risk factors of Ovarian germ cell tumors (Dysgerminoma):

Mature teratoma


Risk factors of Testicular germ cell tumors (Seminoma):

Common risk factors in testicular seminoma include:[8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors


  1. Pleskacova, J.; Hersmus, R.; Oosterhuis, J.W.; Setyawati, B.A.; Faradz, S.M.; Cools, M.; Wolffenbuttel, K.P.; Lebl, J.; Drop, S.L.; Looijenga, L.H. (2010). "Tumor Risk in Disorders of Sex Development". Sexual Development. 4 (4–5): 259–269. doi:10.1159/000314536. ISSN 1661-5433.
  2. Sharpe, Richard M.; Skakkebaek, Niels E. (2008). "Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: mechanistic insights and potential new downstream effects". Fertility and Sterility. 89 (2): e33–e38. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.12.026. ISSN 0015-0282.
  3. Skakkebæk, N.E.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Main, K.M. (2001). "Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: an increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects: Opinion". Human Reproduction. 16 (5): 972–978. doi:10.1093/humrep/16.5.972. ISSN 1460-2350.
  4. Walker AH, Ross RK, Haile RW, Henderson BE (April 1988). "Hormonal factors and risk of ovarian germ cell cancer in young women". Br. J. Cancer. 57 (4): 418–22. PMC 2246577. PMID 3390378.
  5. Hackethal A, Brueggmann D, Bohlmann MK, Franke FE, Tinneberg HR, Münstedt K (December 2008). "Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: systematic review and analysis of published data". Lancet Oncol. 9 (12): 1173–80. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70306-1. PMID 19038764.
  6. Park, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Young-Tak; Nam, Joo-Hyun (2008). "Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: Experience at a single institution". European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 141 (2): 173–178. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2008.07.032. ISSN 0301-2115.
  7. Kliegman, Robert (2011). Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4377-0755-7.
  8. Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors. Dr Matt A. Morgan and Dr Andrew Dixon et al. Radiopaedia 2016. Accessed on February 25, 2016
  9. Causes of seminoma. US National Library of Medicine 2016. Accessed on February 29, 2016
  10. Khan O, Protheroe A (October 2007). "Testis cancer". Postgrad Med J. 83 (984): 624–32. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2007.057992. PMC 2600126. PMID 17916870.
  11. McGlynn KA, Trabert B (April 2012). "Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer". Nat Rev Urol. 9 (6): 339–49. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2012.61. PMC 4031676. PMID 22508459.
  12. Boccellino M, Vanacore D, Zappavigna S, Cavaliere C, Rossetti S, D'Aniello C, Chieffi P, Amler E, Buonerba C, Di Lorenzo G, Di Franco R, Izzo A, Piscitelli R, Iovane G, Muto P, Botti G, Perdonà S, Caraglia M, Facchini G (November 2017). "Testicular cancer from diagnosis to epigenetic factors". Oncotarget. 8 (61): 104654–104663. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.20992. PMC 5732834. PMID 29262668.
  13. Ghazarian AA, Kelly SP, Altekruse SF, Rosenberg PS, McGlynn KA (June 2017). "Future of testicular germ cell tumor incidence in the United States: Forecast through 2026". Cancer. 123 (12): 2320–2328. doi:10.1002/cncr.30597. PMC 5629636. PMID 28241106.
  14. Gurney J, Shaw C, Stanley J, Signal V, Sarfati D (November 2015). "Cannabis exposure and risk of testicular cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Cancer. 15: 897. doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1905-6. PMC 4642772. PMID 26560314.