Germ cell tumor causes
- The cause of germ cell tumor is not understood fully but there are many risk factors that believed to play a role in the development of germ cell tumors.
- Individuals with Differences of Sex Development (DSDs) are predisposed to gonadal germ cell tumor (GCT)
- To determine the risk of Germ cell tumor in patients with DSDs, we need to categorize DSDs precisely based on karyotype, molecular data, hormonal milieu, external phenotype and gonadal morphology
- Common causes of seminoma may include:
- Undescended testis
- Abdominal testis
- Maternal estrogen exposure
- Genetic Causes
- Seminoma is caused by a mutation in the KIT gene.
- 12p11.2-p12.1 chromosomal amplifications and deletions observed in majority of cases.
- There are no established causes for germinoma. However, several theories have been postulated to define the cause of germ cell tumors.
- GCTs arise from primordial germ cells that migrate to the germinal ridges in the developing embryo. The process of migration appears to be under the control of complex molecular events.
- Alteration in any of these molecular pathways may give rise to GCTs. Rather than laterally to genital ridges, some primordial germ cells that have left the yolk sac endoderm migrate aberrantly cranially towards the diencephalic midline structures.
- Important factors in cell migration include the following:
- Extracellular matrix
- Chemotropic factors
- Tumor growth factor beta 1
- Since the maturation of the fetal hypothalamus coincides with the migration of primordial germ cells, the fetal hypothalamus may secrete chemotrophic factors that attract primordial germ cells to the diencephalon.
Common causes of seminoma may include:
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