Hepatocellular adenoma causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zahir Ali Shaikh, MD[2]


Estrogen has a central role in the development of hepatocellular adenoma. The causes of hepatocellular adenoma can include the settings where prolonged and/or excessive estrogen exposure is involved. These can include oral contraceptive medications, pregnancy, long term use of anabolic androgenic steroids, metabolic syndrome, obesity, glycogen storage diseases, and clomiphene.



  1. M. Kawakatsu, V. Vilgrain, S. Erlinger & H. Nahum (1997). "Disappearance of liver cell adenoma: CT and MR imaging". Abdominal imaging. 22 (3): 274–276. PMID 9107649. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. W. H. Marks, N. Thompson & H. Appleman (1988). "Failure of hepatic adenomas (HCA) to regress after discontinuance of oral contraceptives. An association with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and uterine leiomyoma". Annals of surgery. 208 (2): 190–195. PMID 2840865. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)</ref<ref>H. Tesluk & J. Lawrie (1981). "Hepatocellular adenoma. Its transformation to carcinoma in a user of oral contraceptives". Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. 105 (6): 296–299. PMID 6263214. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. D. Carrasco, M. Barrachina, M. Prieto & J. Berenguer (1984). "Clomiphene citrate and liver-cell adenoma". The New England journal of medicine. 310 (17): 1120–1121. doi:10.1056/NEJM198404263101716. PMID 6323982. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. G. B. Coombes, J. Reiser, F. J. Paradinas & I. Burn (1978). "An androgen-associated hepatic adenoma in a trans-sexual". The British journal of surgery. 65 (12): 869–870. PMID 737424. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. U. Beuers, W. O. Richter, M. M. Ritter, B. Wiebecke & P. Schwandt (1991). "Klinefelter's syndrome and liver adenoma". Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 13 (2): 214–216. PMID 1851773. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. N. S. Alshak, J. Cocjin, L. Podesta, R. van de Velde, L. Makowka, P. Rosenthal & S. A. Geller (1994). "Hepatocellular adenoma in glycogen storage disease type IV". Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. 118 (1): 88–91. PMID 8285839. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. P. Labrune, P. Trioche, I. Duvaltier, P. Chevalier & M. Odievre (1997). "Hepatocellular adenomas in glycogen storage disease type I and III: a series of 43 patients and review of the literature". Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. 24 (3): 276–279. PMID 9138172. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. S. Bala, P. H. Wunsch & W. G. Ballhausen (1997). "Childhood hepatocellular adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis: mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli gene and p53". Gastroenterology. 112 (3): 919–922. PMID 9041254. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. J. K. Baum, J. J. Bookstein, F. Holtz & E. W. Klein (1973). "Possible association between benign hepatomas and oral contraceptives". Lancet (London, England). 2 (7835): 926–929. PMID 4126557. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)