Growth hormone-releasing hormone

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Overview

Growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth-hormone-releasing factor (GRF or GHRF) or somatocrinin, is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

GHRH is released from neurosecretory nerve terminals of these arcuate neurons, and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal circulation to the anterior pituitary gland where it stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion. GHRH is released in a pulsatile manner, stimulating similar pulsatile release of GH. In addition, GHRH also promotes slow-wave sleep directly. [1]

Relationship to somatostatin

The actions of GHRH are opposed by another hypothalamic hormone, somatostatin, also known as "growth-hormone-inhibiting hormone" (GHIH).

Somatostatin is released from neurosecretory nerve terminals of periventricular somatostatin neurons, and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal circulation to the anterior pituitary where it inhibits GH secretion by hyperpolarising the somatotropes.

Somatostatin and GHRH are secreted in alternation, giving rise to the markedly pulsatile secretion of GH. However recently it had been discovered that somatostatin does not affect the secretion of GH.[2]

Sequence

The amino acid sequence of GHRH is:

Tyr - Ala - Asp - Ala - Ile - Phe - Thr - Asn - Ser - Tyr - Arg - Lys - Val - Leu - Gly - Glu - Leu - Ser - Ala - Arg - Lys - Leu - Leu - Gln - Asp - Ile - Met - Ser - Arg - Glu - Gln - Gly - Glu - Ser - Asn - Gln - Glu - Arg - Gly - Ala - Arg - Ala - Arg - LeuNH2

References

  1. Obál F, Krueger J (2001). "The somatotropic axis and sleep". Rev Neurol (Paris). 157 (11 Pt 2): S12–5. PMID 11924022.
  2. Dimaraki E, Jaffe C, Demott-Friberg R, Russell-Aulet M, Bowers C, Marbach P, Barkan A (2001). "Generation of growth hormone pulsatility in women: evidence against somatostatin withdrawal as pulse initiator". Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 280 (3): E489–95. PMID 11171604. Paper

bg:Соматотропин-освобождаващ хормон de:Somatoliberin mk:Соматотропен ослободувачки хормон


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